Calculate RMSE and MAE in R and SAS

Here is code to calculate RMSE and MAE in R and SAS. RMSE (root mean squared error), also called RMSD (root mean squared deviation), and MAE (mean absolute error) are both used to evaluate models. MAE gives equal weight to all errors, while RMSE gives extra weight to large errors.

Popup notification from R on Windows

After R is done running a long process, you may need to notify the operator to check the R console and provide the next commands. Without installing any more software or creating any batch files or VBS scripts, here is a simple way to create the popup notice in Windows

lag function for data frames

When applying the stats::lag() function to a data frame, you probably expect it will pad the missing time periods with NA, but lag() doesn’t. For example: Nothing happened. Here is an alternative lag function made for this situation. It pads the beginning of the output vecot with as many NA as there are lags, and…